Key resources:


Main Resources 

Kesic, D., Thomas, S., Bonomo, A., Bruno, R., Chambers, J., Dougall N., Heyman, I., Sinclair, E., Watson, A., Young, L., & Zoeteman, J. (September, 2019). Police Management of Mental Health Crises in the Community. GLEAPHA & RMIT. View here.

Law Enforcement and Mental Health Special Interest Group (September 2019). Communique 1: Police Management of Mental Health Crises in the Community. View here.

Law Enforcement and Mental Health Special Interest Group (October 2020). Communique 2: Mental Health, Distress and the Emergency Department National Summit. View here.


Other Resources

Police models of responding to mental health distress

  • Specialised police responses

Usher, L., Watson, A., Bruno, R.,  Andriukaitis, S., Kamin, D., Speed, C., & Taylor, S. (2019, August). Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Programs: A Best Practice Guide to Transforming Community Responses to Mental Health Crises. Memphis: CIT International. Retrieved from on 5 September 2019.

Watson, A.C., Compton, M.T., & Draine, J.N. (2017). The crsis intervention team (CIT) model: An evidence-based policing practice. Behavioral Science and the Law, 35; 431-441.


  • Co-responder models / street triage

Fahim, C., Semovski, V., & Younger, J. (2016). The Hamilton Mobile Crisis Rapid Response Team: A first-responder mental health service. Psychiatric Services, 67; 929. doi:10.1176/

Heslin, M., Callaghan, L., Barrett, B., Lea, S., Eick, S., Morgan, J., Bolt, M. Thornicroft, G., Rose, D., Healey, A., & Patel, A. (2017). Costs of the police service and mental healthcare pathways experienced by individuals with enduring mental health needs. British Journal of Psychiatry, 210; 157-164.

Horspool, K., Drabble, S.J. and O’Cathain, A. (2016). Implementing street triage: A qualitative study of collaboration between police and mental health services. BMC Psychiatry, 16; 313. doi: 10.1186/s12888-016-1026-z.

Jenkins, O., Dye, S., Obeng-Asare, F., Nguyen, N., & Wright, N. (2017). Police liaison and section 136: Comparison of two different approaches. Psychiatric Bulletin, 41; 76-82. doi:10.1192/pb.bp.115.052977 

Lamanna, D., Shapiro, G.K., Kirst, M., Matheson, F.I., Nakhost, A., & Stergiopoulos, V. (2018). Co-responding police-mental health programmes: Service user experiences and outcomes in a large urban centre. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 27; 891-900.

Lee, S., Thomas, P., Doulis, C., Bowles, D., Henderson, K., Keppich-Arnold, S., Perez, E., & Stafrace, S. (2015). Outcomes achieved by and police and clinician perspectives on a joint police officer and mental health clinician mobile response unit. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 24; 538-546. doi:10.1111.inm.12153

McKenna, B., Furness, T., Oakes, J., & Brown, S. (2015). Police and mental health clinician partnership in response to mental health crisis: A qualitative study. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 24; 386-393. 

Morabito, M.S., Savage, J., Sneider, L., & Wallace, K. (2018). Police Response to People with Mental Illnesses in a Major U.S. City: The Boston Experience with the Co-Responder Model, Victims & Offenders, 13, 1093-1105, doi: 10.1080/15564886.2018.1514340

Puntis, S., Perfect, D., Kirubatajan, A., Bolton, S., Davies, F., Hayes, A., Harriss, E., & Molodynski, A. (2018). A systematic review of co-responder models of police mental health ‘street’ triage. BMC Psychiatry, 18:256.


  • Other/bespoke responses

Bouveng, O., Bengtsson, F.A., & Carlborg, A. (2017). First year follow up of the Psychiatric Emergency Response team (PAM) in Stockholm County, Sweden: A Descriptive Study. International Journal of Mental Health, 46:2, 65-73, doi: 10.1080/00207411.2016.1264040 

Kesic, D. & Thomas, S. (July, 2012). Evaluation of Police and Community Triage (PACT) Pilot: Final Report. Monash University: Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science.  

Kurdziel, S. (2016). Social Navigation Program (SNP) Comprehensive Evaluation of 2014 and 2015 clients. Hamilton Police Service, Hamilton, ON.

Morgan, A., Ross, A., & Reavley, N.J. (2018). Systematic review and meta-analysis of Mental Health First Aid training: Effects on knowledge, stigma, and helping behaviour. PLoS ONE, 13(5), e0197102. 


  • Studies comparing the different responses

Boscarato, K., Lee, S., Kroschel, J., Hollander, Y., Brenan, A., & Warren, N. (2014). Consumer experience of formal crisis-response services and preferred models of crisis intervention. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 23; 287-295. doi:10.1111/inm.12059


Broad resources

Coleman, T., & Cotton, D. (2014). TEMPO: Police Interactions. A report towards improving interactions between police and people living with mental health problems. Mental Health Commission of Canada. 

HMICFRS (2018). Policing and Mental Health: Picking up the Pieces. Retrieved from

McGeough, E., & Foster, R. (2018, August). What works? Collaborative Police and Health Interventions for Mental Health Distress. Scottish Government. Retrieved from on 5 June 2019.

Murray, J., Heyman, I., Wooff, A., Dougall, N., Aston, L., & Enang, I. (2017). Law enforcement and public health: setting the research agenda for Scotland. Scottish Institute for Policing Research. Retrieved from on 29 August 2019.

Thomas, S.D.M., & Watson, A.C. (2017). A focus for mental health training for police. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, 3; 93-104.

Wood, J.D. & Beierschmitt, L. (2014). Beyond police crisis intervention: Moving “upstream” to manage cases and places of behavioural health vulnerability. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 37, 439-447

Wood J.D., Taylor, C.J., Groff, E.R., & Ratcliffe, J.H. (2015). Aligning policing and public health promotions: Insights from the world of foot patrol. Police Practice and Research, 16, 211–223. doi:10.1080/15614263.2013.846982.

Wood, J.D. & Watson, A.C. (2017). Improving police interventions during mental health- related encounters: Past, present and future. Policing and Society. 27, 289-299.